Machu Picchu (Quechua voice meaning "old top" known as the Lost City of the Incas, is a pre-Columbian archaeological site, located in a mountainous area about 2,350 meters of altitude in the valley of 'Urubamba in Peru.
It is assumed that the city had been built by the Inca Pachacutec around the year 1440 Spanish conquest of 1532.
The city's location was a closely guarded military secret, because the deep ravines that surrounded her were her best natural defense.
In fact, once abandoned, its location was unknown for four centuries, entering into legend. Archaeological discoveries, combined with recent studies of colonial documents, show that it was not a normal city, but rather a sort of summer residence for the Inca emperor and the nobility.
It is estimated that no more than 750 people at a time could reside in Machu Picchu, and possibly during the rainy season or when there were noble, the number was even lower.
The city was discovered July 24, 1911 by Hiram Bingham, a Yale historian, who was exploring the old Inca roads of the area in search of 'last Inca capital Vilcabamba.
Bingham he made several other trips and carried out excavations until 1915 and only later realized the importance of his discovery, he became convinced that Machu Picchu was Vilcabamba.
Returning to his research he wrote several articles and books on Machu Picchu was the best known, The Lost City of the Incas.