Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, halfway between Norway and the North Pole.; Positioned between 74 ° and 81 ° N, and between 10 ° and 34 ° East, is the northernmost part of Norway .
The islands cover an area of 62,050 km ². The larger islands Spitsbergen (39,000 km ²), Nordaustlandet (14,600 km ²) and Edgeøya (5000 km ²).
The population is more than 2500 inhabitants. Svalbard is administered by a governor appointed, the sysselmann, whose office is located in the town of Longyearbyen.
Because of a particular legal situation, all countries that signed the Treaty of Svalbard have the right, like Norway, Svalbard to colonize and to develop the economy, but the only country to take seriously this possibility has been the Soviet Union, whose settlements of Barentsburg and Pyramiden have reached several thousand inhabitants, for a time the most widely spoken language on Svalbard was Russian.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the interruption of subsidies, the population of Russia (and Ukraine) has been reduced to about 500 units, and Pyramiden was completely abandoned, and from 2009 to Pyramiden some Russians from Barentsburg are trying to resume for tourism in the archipelago.
Again because of certain clauses in the Treaty of Svalbard, there is no particular requirement (such as residence permits, work, etc.) for permanent residence: supposed to be able to find work, there are no obstacles of any kind because the Treaty provides for no discrimination among citizens of the States Parties to the Treaty.
There are no roads between the settlements on the islands; transportation are conducted with boats, planes and helicopters, as well as snowmobiling.
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